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sen: 文化多元主义之运用及其误用(3)  

2009-07-19 22:49:36|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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三、英国的文化共存之路

Britain, to which I first came as a student in 1953, has been particularlyimpressive in making room for different cultures. The distance traveled hasbeen in many ways quite extraordinary. I recollect (with some fondness, I mustadmit) how worried my first landlady in Cambridge was about the possibilitythat my skin color might come off in the bath (I had to assure her that my huewas agreeably sturdy and durable), and also the care with which she explainedto me that writing was a special invention of Western civilization ("TheBible did it"). For someone who has lived--intermittently but for longperiods--through the powerful evolution of British cultural diversity, thecontrast between Britaintoday and Britainhalf a century ago is just amazing. 

1953年时,我第一次作为学生来到了英国。英国给我最深的印象,就是它为不同的文化创造了存在的空间。文化之间的隔膜差异,在许多地方是非常大的。我还记得(想起这个,我就觉得好玩),在剑桥时,我的第一个房东太太,最担心的就是:我的肤色是不是洗澡洗出来的(我只好跟她讲,我的肤色,是永远不变的,没有问题)。她还一再地跟我说,书写是西方文明的一个特殊的发明。(她说,《圣经》就是写出来的。)对于经历了英国文化差异剧烈变革的这个人来说(他虽然只是断续地在英国居住,但是,住了一个很长的时期),英国的今天,与五十年前的英国,其间的对比是非常强烈的。

The encouragement given to cultural diversity has certainlymade many contributions to people's lives. It has helped Britain tobecome an exceptionally lively place in many different ways. From the joys ofmulticultural food, literature, music, dancing, and the arts to the befuddlingentrapment of the Notting Hill Carnival, Britain gives its people--of allbackgrounds--much to relish and to celebrate. Also, the acceptance of culturaldiversity (as well as voting rights and largely non-discriminatory publicservices and social security, referred to earlier) has made it easier forpeople with very different origins to feel at home. 

鼓励文化多样化,当然对人们的生活产生了许多作用。它使得英国这个国家,成为了一个多种生活方法共存的地方,极其具有活力。人们享受到多文化的饮食、文学、音乐、舞蹈和艺术,也享受到诺丁山狂欢节的迷醉。英国使它的人民(来自各种背景的人们)拥有了很多乐趣,拥有了很多庆祝活动。而且,接受了文化的多样性(以及相对过去来说的投票权,基本上无歧视的公共服务和社会保障),使得具有不同来源的人们,更加容易地觉得自己的归宿感。

Still, it is worth recalling that the acceptance of diverseliving modes and varying cultural priorities has not always had an easy rideeven in Britain.There has been a periodic but persistent demand that immigrants give up theirtraditional styles of life and adopt the dominant living modes in the societyto which they have immigrated. That demand has sometimes taken a remarkablydetailed view of culture, involving quite minute behavioral issues, wellillustrated by the famous cricket test proposed by Lord Tebbit, theConservative political leader. His cricket test suggested that the sign of awell-integrated immigrant is that he cheers for Englandin test matches against the country of his own origin (such as Pakistan)when the two sides play each other. 

还有,值得回忆的是:接受各色各样的生活方式以及多种多样的文化特性,在英国,也并不是一马平川的坦途。周期性地,会出现了一些要求,而且,这些要求还是不绝于史,那就是:要求移民放弃自己的传统生活方式,服从他们移居的社会的主流生活方式。这种要求,有时,还采取了不厌其详的文化视角,还涉及到微小的行为问题。像Lord Tebbit这位保守党的政治领袖,就提出过一个著名的“板球测试”,就是一个很好的说明。他搞的这个“板球测试”说的是:看一个移民,是不是很好地融合于英国,有一个标志就是:当来自他的母国的板球队,与英国板球队对决的时候,他为英国喝彩。


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