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sen: 文化多元主义之运用及其误用(2)  

2009-07-13 20:57:36|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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1.2 文化多元主义的核心实践问题为何?

Discussions of British policies on multiculturalism thus have a much wider reach, and arouse much greater interest and passion, than the boundaries of the ostensible subject matter would lead one to expect. Six weeks after the July terrorist attacks in London, when Le Monde published a critical essay called "The British Multicultural Model in Crisis," the debate was immediately joined by a leader of another liberal establishment, James A. Goldston, director of the Open Society Justice Initiative in America, who described the Le Monde article as "trumpeting," and replied: "Don't use the very real threat of terrorism to justify shelving more than a quarter-century of British achievement in the field of race relations." There is a general issue of some importance to be debated and evaluated here. 

因此,探讨英国的文化多元主义政策,使我们观察的范围会更加广阔,也提高了兴趣,增加了感性认识,而不只是让人们猜来猜去的表面事物的边界。在伦敦七月恐怖袭击之后的六周后,Le Monde发表了一篇论文,题目为《危机中的英国文化多元主义模式》,立即就得到了另一个自由主义组织的领导人James A. Goldston的响应(他是美国“推动开放社会正义”组织的主任)。他说,Le Monde5的文章,是“一声号角”,而且,他还回应到:“不要用这种非常现实的恐怖主义威胁,来证明应该搁置英国近四分之一个世纪来在种族关系中所取得到的成就。”这里,有一个非常重要的普遍问题,值得争论,值得评估。

I will argue that the real issue is not whether "multiculturalism has gone too far" (as Goldston summarizes one of the lines of criticism), but what particular form multiculturalism should take. Is multiculturalism nothing other than tolerance of the diversity of cultures? Does it make a difference who chooses the cultural practices--whether they are imposed on young children in the name of "the culture of the community" or whether they are freely chosen by persons with adequate opportunity to learn and to reason about alternatives? What facilities do members of different communities have, in schools as well as in the society at large, to learn about the faiths and non-faiths of different people in the world, and to understand how to reason about choices that human beings must, if only implicitly, make? 

我认为,真正的问题不在于“文化多元主义是否已经走得太远”(Goldston在一大堆批评中的一个总结),而是“文化多元主义应该采取何种特殊的形式”。文化多元主义,是否就只是对文化的多元性采取宽容的态度?如果人们采取了不同的文化实践——或者用“社区文化”的名义给幼童强加了某种文化实践,或者由人们自由地拥有了足够的机会,从而在自行认识并自行推证的基础上,选择了其他的文化实践——那么,这中间是否存在差异呢?不同社区的成员,他们在学校以及在更广泛意义的社会层面上,需要掌握什么样的工具,才能够知道全世界的不同人们的信仰或非信仰呢?才能够理解(假设他们只需要暗地里理解)人类必须如何去进行理性的选择呢?


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