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马克思主义的周期理论对“资本主义当前危机”的解释  

2009-05-17 22:10:43|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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中文博主按:曼德尔在《资本论》序中(英文版)里,对马克思主义与各大理论之间的关系,进行了探讨。很有趣。国内已有“序”的中文单行本。


马克思主义对20世纪70年代的资本主义危机的探讨


原作者:厄内斯特·曼德尔


书评者:MEGHNAD DESAI( London School of Economics)



TheSecond Slump. A Marxist Analysis of Recession in the Seventies. By ERNESTMANDEL. 2nd edition. (London:NLB, I978. Pp. 2I2. ?6.50.)

 

ErnestMandel is perhaps the most widely read Marxist economist today. A Belgian, heis a politically active and prolific writer on the theory and application ofMarxian economics. His major work, Late Capitalism, published some four yearsago, gives a wide ranging discussion of his view of the development ofcapitalism in the last hundred years but mainly concentrates on the periodI940-71. This book, much more limited in scope, is a long postscript updatinghis views on the long recession in most developed capitalist countries sinceI973/4.

厄内斯特·曼德尔,可能是当今的马克思主义经济学家中,读者最多的人了。一个比利时人,曼德尔积极地参加政治活动,在马克思主义经济学的理论和应用上,著作等身。他的主要作品,《晚近的资本主义》,大约在四年前出版,对最近百年来的资本主义发展,从自己的观点的角度,进行了广泛的讨论,但是,主要侧重于1940-71年间。现在的这本作品,在时间上,更具限定性,是一个长篇的拾漏补遗,对1973/74年以来的最发达资本主义国家的长期衰退,提出了自己的新观点。

Thebook is in five chapters, four of which mainly summarise various aspects ofrecent economic history in a wide international perspective. Mandel seems tokeep track of developments in all the major countries and his reading coversvarious languages. The last chapter discusses some theoretical issues and endswith an intervention in the French elections of March 1978.

本书共有五章,其中四章,主要是从广阔的国际视角,总结了最近的经济史的方方面面。曼德尔似乎一直在紧紧地追踪所有主要国家的发展过程,他的阅读,也涵盖了多种语言。最后一章,讨论了一些理论问题,最后一章涉及到了19783月的法国选举问题。

Mandeldoes not endorse any particular variant of the Marxian theory of the Trade Cycle.Both at the outset and in the last chapter, he is willing to take an eclecticview of the various monocausal explanations: over-accumulation,under-consumption, falling rate of profit, etc. Mandel's explanation, by nomeans formally worked out, would include international and financial factorsalong with the more conventional 'real' theory of the cycle.

曼德尔并没有对马克思主义的各种商业周期理论给予背书。不仅在开头,而且在最后一章中,他对各种单一原因的解释(如积累过剩、消费不足、利润率下降,等等),采取了折中的态度。曼德尔的角度,当然绝不是规范化的研究,但是,却包括了国际的、金融的因素,还包括了更传统的“真实”周期理论。

Thereis, however, one bedrock on which Mandel's theory stands. This is the beliefthat crisis has a purgative or therapeutic role to perform in a capitalisteconomy. Indeed, attempts by national governments and international fora toco-ordinate anticyclical efforts are bound to fail because: 'The objectivefunction of the crisis is to constitute a mechanism through which the law ofvalue asserts itself, despite capitalist competition (or the action ofmonopolies)' (p. I70, italics in the original).

然而,曼德尔的理论,有一个最基本的原理。这就是他的信仰:经济危机,是资本主义经济体中的一个净化工具或治疗工具。实际上,一国政府和国际论坛,试图协调反周期工作的尝试,肯定会是失败的:“经济危机的客观作用,就是建立一种机制,利用这种机制,价值规律会维护自己的存在,而不管资本主义的竞争(或垄断者的行动)”(P.170, 原文斜体)。

Ifone probes this statement further through the text and in earlier writings ofMandel (as of many other Marxists), one finds a view remarkably similar to theold neoclassical-Austrian (Hayek-Robbins) or modern monetarist view, i.e. thereis a 'natural' or 'objective' course in the economy given by the 'natural rateof unemployment' or the 'law of value'. The economy can only swing around thislevel and nothing can be done to alter such a level by governments. For Mandel,the total surplus value produced constitutes a limit to the amount of profitsto be realised, the amount of capital that can be valorised. Thus he says: 'Themore national governments manipulate the money supply, volume of credit andartificial exchange rates on the national level, the more protectionistpolicies are applied and the internationalized productive forces rebel againstthese manipulations, the more the laws of the market - the law of value -trigger compensatory mechanisms that render these government measuresineffective or even counter-protective' (p.189).

如果我们对本书及曼德尔的早期作品(及许多的其他马克思主义者的作品)进行进一步的探寻,那么,我们就会发现有一个观点,与古老的新古典-奥地利学派(哈耶克-罗宾斯)或现代的货币主义观点,有着惊人的相似,即:因为“自然失业率”或“价值规律”,而使经济体具有一个“自然过程”或“客观过程”。这个经济体,只能围绕这个水平而波动,而政府不能改变这个水平。对于曼德尔来说,经济体所生产的总剩余价值,是将要实现的利润总额的最高限值,是可以限定的资本总额的最高限值。因此,所说:“一国政府,对货币供给、信用总额、国家水平上的人为交换率,控制得越多,那么,保护主义的政策,就会实施得越多,国际化了的生产力,就会反击这种操控,市场规律(即价值规律),就会越多地触发补偿机制,从而使得这些政府措施无效力,或者,甚至会导致反保护主义。”(p.189

Thisis comfortable financial orthodoxy, albeit dressed in Marxian guise. One feels,however, that the current state of Marxian crisis theory does not warrant suchstrong conclusions any more than the monetarist explanation relying also on'the laws of the market' does. At an analytical level, we simply do not have anadequate Marxian theory of cycles which can integrate the monetary and realfactors even in a competitive much less a monopolistic framework. Since itviews the State as parasitical at a basic level, conventional Marxian theoryfinds it difficult to accommodate counter-cyclical fiscal policy; it also distruststhe 'social wage' and all other trappings of the welfare state.

这真是一个令人舒坦的金融学正统理论,虽然它披着马克思主义的外衣。然而,我们觉得:马克思主义危机理论的当前状况,相比于货币主义依赖“市场规律”所给出的结论来说,并不能确保如此有说服力的结论。在分析的层面上,我们完全不需要一个充分的马克思主义周期理论。该理论可以将货币因素和实际因素,甚至都放进一个竞争性的、相对更少垄断的框架里去。因为它从根本上视“国家”为食利者,所以,传统的马克思主义理论,认为很难融合进“反周期的财政政策”;同时,它还不相信福利国家的“社会工资”和其他所有的陷阱。

Mandelis not of course to blame for this lack of an analytical framework. SomeMarxists have been too eager to revise, and agree with some economists that thecycle became obsolete during the sixties. Others now can claim that cycles arean inevitable part of capitalism. Both, one fears, are wrong. What is true,however, is that whatever the current state, be it boom or slump, it cannotlast for ever. That remains one irreducible truth in Marx's view of capitalism,and that is an antidote to much theorising which projects the present into theindefinite future.

当然,不能因为曼德尔缺乏一个分析框架,而来责备他。一些马克思主义心太急了,以至于没有修正,他们同意了一些经济学家的说法,认为在20世纪60年代,“周期”是一个过时的词语。现在,其他的马克思主义者们,可以说“周期”是资本主义不可避免的组成部分。我们觉得,这两种做法都不对。然而,真正的事实,却是:无论当前的状态,无论它是繁荣还是衰退,这种状态都不会永远的持续下去。这在马克思的资本主义观中,是一个不可分割的真理。在把当前现实融合到无穷未来的更多的理论化中,这是一个解惑方法。

Thiscriticism apart, Mandel offers a timely, readable, and wide-ranging review ofrecent economic history. The book is printed well and without proof readingblemishes.

曼德尔,除了这些责难之外,对当前的经济史,还给出了一个及时的、可读的、更加广泛的观点。书印得很好,而且,没有校对的瑕疵。

MEGHNAD DESAI London School of Economics

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