注册 登录  
 加关注
   显示下一条  |  关闭
温馨提示!由于新浪微博认证机制调整,您的新浪微博帐号绑定已过期,请重新绑定!立即重新绑定新浪微博》  |  关闭

N·格里高利·曼昆的博客

恒甫学社的学术性分支博客

 
 
 

日志

 
 
关于我
曼昆  

曼昆

网易考拉推荐

最低工资不可行!  

2009-05-16 12:19:43|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |

Monday, May 07, 2007

Living Wage Redux

美女同事[译]

A group of ec 10 students asked me today about the hunger strikethat some students have recently begun to protest the wages of Harvardsecurity guards. A similar issue arose in 2001. Here is what I wroteback then in Harvard Magazine.

今天,经济学ec 10的一群学生,就最近开始的绝食抗议来询问我。一些学生通过这种方式,反对哈佛保安的工资。2001年发生过类似的事情。当时,我在哈佛杂志上写了一篇文章。

 

The Case against the Living Wage

Whena group of students took over an administration building last spring toprotest Harvard's wage policy, many people found it easy to sympathizewith them. Without doubt, life is hard for workers getting by on $8 or$9 an hour. Moreover, the protest was a welcome relief from therelentless careerism that infects too many students today. Theprotesters were admirable in their desire to reach beyond their ownfortunate cocoons and help those who are less lucky.

去年春天,一群学生占领了行政大楼,以抗议哈佛的工资政策。这很容易招来大家的同情。不错,对于那些一个小时赚$8$9的工人来说,生活是艰辛的。同时,抗议受到欢迎,因为它可以很好地缓和无情的功利主义,太多的学生受到了这种思想的侵蚀。抗议者也值得赞扬,因为他们志向高远,除了裹在自己身上的财富之茧外,还渴望去帮助那些不太走运的人。

 

Despitethe students' good intentions, I cannot support their cause. If anyinstitution should think with its head as well as its heart, it is auniversity. In my view, there are compelling reasons to reject thestudents' pleas.

虽然,这些学生立意甚好,但是,我不能支持他们。如果有一个机构会心脑并用地思考问题,那一定是大学。我认为,有许多令人信服的理由,反对学生的请愿活动。

 

Likemost of the prices in our economy, wages move to balance supply anddemand. A high minimum wage set by fiat, either through legislation orstudent pressure, prevents this natural adjustment and hurts some ofthe people it is designed to help. It is a timeless economic lessonthat when the price of something goes up, buyers usually buy less ofit. If Harvard has to pay its unskilled workers a higher wage, it willhire fewer of them. Some workers earn more, but others end upunemployed.

就如经济中存在的诸多价格一样,工资会变动,以平衡供求关系。批准一个高水平的最低工资,无论是通过立法还是通过学生施压,都会阻碍工资的自然调整,伤害到本意想帮助的一些人。有一条放之世海皆准的经济定律:某物的价格上升,购买通常会减少。如果哈佛必须向非熟练工支付更高的工资,它就会少雇用这类工人。有一些工人挣得多了,但是其他人呢?失业了。

 

Living-wageadvocates say that Harvard with its huge endowment can afford to payhigher wages. That's true, but it misses the point. Like all employers,Harvard faces trade-offs. Should extra money be spent hiring moreprofessors to reduce class sizes, or should it be spent hiring morejanitors to vacuum classrooms more often? It's a judgment call. If thecost of unskilled labor rises, Harvard faces a new set of trade-offs.Over time, it will respond by hiring fewer of those workers.

支持最低工资的人认为,哈佛有大量的捐赠,付得起更高的工资。这是事实,但是,没有抓住要害。就如其他的雇主一样,哈佛也面临着权衡。额外的钱应该用来聘用更多的教师,以减少班级规模?还是,应该用来聘用更多的看门人,以更经常清空教室?这需要判断。如果,非熟练工的成本提高了,哈佛就会面临一套新的权衡。一段时间之后,它将雇用更少的工人。

 

Ahigher wage would also change the composition of Harvard's work force,for wages play a role in supply as well as demand. If the Universityposts a job opening at $10 an hour, it gets a larger and better mix ofapplicants than if it posts the same opening at $8 an hour. The personwho would have gotten the job at the lower wage is now displaced by amore skilled worker. In the short run, a living wage might benefitthose at the bottom of the economic ladder. In the long run, they wouldbe replaced by those who are already a rung or two higher.

更高的工资,还将改变哈佛的人员构成。因为,工资不仅对供给起作用,也对需求有影响。如果大学提供一份每小时$10的工作,比之每小时$8,它将招来更多更优秀的申请人。那些在低工资能够得到工作的人,现在被更有技能的工人替代了。短期内,最低工资可以帮助那些处于经济底层的人们。但长期内,他们会被处于更上层的人所代替。

 

Finally,the living-wage protest raises the issue of Harvard's mission insociety. The benefactors who give to the University do so to supporteducation, not income redistribution. (And if Harvard were to take upthe cause of income redistribution, it would have to acknowledge thateven the poorest workers in Cambridgeare rich by world standards.) Harvard needs to pay itsworkers--janitors and professors alike--enough to attract and motivatethem. But it shouldn't pay more than it needs to, given the competitivelabor markets in which it hires. To do so would compromise theUniversity's commitment to the creation and dissemination of knowledge.

最后,最低工资的抗议提出了一个问题:哈佛在社会中的使命。那些大学的捐赠者,意在支持教育,而不是收入再分配。(如果哈佛要承担收入再分配的事业,它应该认识到,即使剑桥学院里最贫穷的工人,按照世界水平来看,也是富有的。)哈佛支付给雇员――无论是看门人,还是教师――的工资,必须要吸引他们,而且能够激励他们。但是,在其置身的竞争性的劳动力市场中,它并不需要支付得更多。如果执意要这样做,就会危害到大学的责任――创造知识与传播知识。

  评论这张
 
阅读(146)| 评论(0)
推荐 转载

历史上的今天

评论

<#--最新日志,群博日志--> <#--推荐日志--> <#--引用记录--> <#--博主推荐--> <#--随机阅读--> <#--首页推荐--> <#--历史上的今天--> <#--被推荐日志--> <#--上一篇,下一篇--> <#-- 热度 --> <#-- 网易新闻广告 --> <#--右边模块结构--> <#--评论模块结构--> <#--引用模块结构--> <#--博主发起的投票-->
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

页脚

网易公司版权所有 ©1997-2017