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森《真实的印度》(1):重新审视被扭曲的历史  

2009-05-03 22:10:45|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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The Arguing Indian

真实的印度

 

Amartya Sen Pranab Bardhan

 

二零零九年四月

 

 

Theincomparable Amartya Sen on why democracy doesn't belong to the West, thefallacy of the "moderate" Muslim, India's atheist tradition, andother contentions.

无与伦比的阿马蒂亚·森,论何以民主不属于西方世界,论中庸穆斯林的谬误,论印度的无神论传统,以及其他相关争论。

一、重新审视被扭曲的历史

The lives of Amartya Sen, aNobel prize winner in economics and one of the most celebrated publicintellectuals of our time, and Pranab Bardhan, a Berkeley economics professor who specializesin issues of global development and poverty, were marked by coincidence longbefore they became friends and colleagues. Several years apart, they both spentsome of their childhoods in Santiniketan, a Bengali university town famous asthe home of the Indian poet and thinker, Rabindranath Tagore. Both attended Presidency Collegein Calcutta, and they finally met at Cambridge University. Like Bardhan, Sen alsotaught at Berkeley,arriving in 1964 - an intellectually seminal year for him, he says. Beyondeconomics, Sen and Bardhan share a broad interest in history and culture,perhaps in part, Bardhan suggests, because the Bengali language, which they andmore than 200 million others speak, has spawned such a rich literary tradition.Californiamagazine recently reunited the two friends in San Francisco for a discussion of issuesraised in Sen's most recent books, The Argumentative Indian and Identity and Violence.

阿马蒂亚·森,诺贝尔经济学将得主,当今最杰出的公共知识分子之一;普拉拉·巴汉,伯克利经济学教授,专长于研究全球发展、贫困问题。这二位,在成为知交和同事之前很久,即有着巧合的人生轨迹。他们年龄仅数岁之隔,都在Santiniketan有数年童年时光,这个小镇是孟加拉大学所在地,因伟大的诗人和思想家泰戈尔家乡,而闻名于世。他们都在CalcutaaPresidency College就学,最后都重聚于剑桥大学。与巴汉一样,森也在伯克利教过书。森说,那是1964年,这一年他获得了思想发展的基础。除经济学之外,他们二位,对历史和文化都有着广泛的兴趣。巴汉说,部分原因就在于他们所讲的孟加拉语,酿就了丰富的文学传统。《加州》杂志,最近,让这二位好友,在旧金山重新聚首,请他们讨论森的最新著作《争议印度人》(ArgumentativeIndian)和《身份与冲突》(Identity and Violence)中所提出的问题。

Although Sen was primarilyawarded the Nobel, in 1998, for highly technical and mathematical advances insocial choice theory, he is more widely known as an untiring champion forending world poverty, for mass education, health care, and women's autonomy,and for promoting democracy and public reasoning, values that he has explicitlylinked, notably in his book, Development as Freedom. Sen's two recent books, both releasedwithin the last year, share a concern with religious and ethnic extremism, andviolence.

虽然森1998年的诺奖,是因为他在社会选择理论上的高度技术化和数学化的推进,但是,他还是众所周知的一位永不知疲倦的斗士。终结世界贫困、推进大众教育、推进医疗保健、推进妇女自主、推进民主化、推进公共理性。这是他明确宣示的价值观,在他的著作《自由即发展》(Developmentas Freedom)中,最为突出。森最新的两部作品,在去年公开面世,对宗教极端主义、种族极端主义和冲突,都给予了极大的关注。

The Argumentative Indianresurveys Indian history, finding strong traditions of tolerance, scientificand mathematical achievement, and nascent democracy, particularly in theimportant sense of decision making through public discussion. Sen believesHindu nationalists (and American "clash of civilizations" theorists)distort India'shistory with their singular focus on the Hindu tradition, a theme he again takesup in Identity andViolence. There he argues that the erroneous and belligerentinsistence by religious and ethnic extremists that we have one, true,"discovered" identity - rather than multiple ones that we canreasonably choose among - underlies much of the world's violence.

《争议印度人》这本著作,重新审视了印度历史,发现印度有着源远流长的宽容传统、科学和数学成就、萌芽民主,特别是通过公共辩论来进行决策这个重要问题上。森相信,印度教国家主义者(以及美国的“文明的冲突”式的理论家们),都因他们对印度传统的单一视角,而扭曲了印度历史。他在《身份与冲突》中重新引燃了这个话题。在那本书里,他指出:宗教极端主义和种族极端主义,具有错误的、好斗的信仰,他们坚称:我们具有惟一的、真实的、“被识别的”身份——而不是可以合理选择的多重身份。在全球范围内,大部分冲突,均因此而起。

 

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