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男女有别的实证经济学分析  

2009-04-30 20:56:48|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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中文博主按:又是伟大的波斯纳!

Posner vs Tilghman

男女有别的实证经济学分析


Hereis legal scholar RichardPosner, in his blog post from yesterday, on the gender gap:

法律专家波斯纳,有一个博文,讨论了性别差别:

 

the mean performance of women in college anduniversity is superior to that of the men, but the variance of male performanceis greater and as a result there are more male geniuses. There is no reason whythe difference in variance should result in higher average male earnings; thathigher average is probably the result of women's spending less time in the workforce because of pregnancy and child care. Women's greater proclivity for childcare may well have a biological basis, as may the difference in variance that Imentioned. In the "ancestral environment"--the term thatanthropologists use to describe the prehistoric period in which human beingsreached approximately their current biological state--women who were"steady" would have tended to have the maximum number of children,while natural selection might favor variance in male abilities because variancewould produce some outstanding men who would tend to reproduce more than othermen (including the "steadies") in the polygamous conditions ofprehistoric society. If the explanation based on evolutionary biology iscorrect, women will continue to be "underrepresented" inhigh-achievement positions in many fields; why anyone should care is beyond me.

在大学里,女生表现的平均值,比男生要大;但是,男生的方差,却是很大的,因此,男人的天才数量,要比女生更多一点。人们并不知道,为什么“方差的差别,会使得男生的收入平均值要高于女生”;收入均值较大,可能是因为女生在工作中花费的时候,更少,女生在怀孕和带小孩。女生带小孩的倾向更大一些,这可能具有生物学的理由,这也是我前面提及的方差有别的原因。在“远祖环境”中——这个词,人类学家常常用它来描述史前的时期,在那个时期,人类大概的形成了它们当前的生活状态——女生具有“稳定性”,她们会拥有最大数量的小孩,而自然的选择,会更倾向于“男性能力”的方差,因为方差会产生很多杰出的男生,他们的再生产能力,超过了史前社会的一妻多夫时代的男生(也超过了“稳定性”男生)。如果生物进化论的这个解释是正确的,那么,在许多领域的更高成就的位置上,女生还会“数量不足”;其他人所关心的理由,我是一无所知的。

 

 

Andhere, from today's WallStreet Journal, is Princeton University President Shirley Tilghman:

下面,华尔街日报上,是普林斯顿校长Shirley Tilghman的说法:

 

There are 25 years of good social science thatdemonstrate the many cultural practices that act collectively to discouragewomen from entering and continuing careers in science and engineering. Theresearch is overwhelming, and it is there for anybody to see. On the otherhand, the data that would suggest there are innate differences in the abilitiesof men and women to succeed in the natural sciences are nonexistent.

一项社会科学的研究,从事了25年,它说明了许多文化实践的现象,总体上来说,在科学和工程领域,是不鼓励女人进入和从事相关职业的。这项研究蛮有说服力,大家也可以看到。在另一方面,数据还说明了:男女在自然科学方面的成功能力上,并不存在所谓的“天赋性差别”。

 

Ithink it might be a good idea to get these two together for a debate.

让这两位大侠来一场辩论赛,一定很好玩。

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