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“通往诺奖之路”论文篇(5):写作方法  

2009-04-19 09:56:52|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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2Writing

 写法

 

Keep itshort

短小精悍

 

Keep the paper as short as possible. Every word mustcount. As you edit the paper ask yourself constantly, “can I make the samepoint in less space?” and “Do I really have to say this?” Final papers shouldbe no more than 40 pages. Drafts should be shorter. (Do as I say, not as I do!)Shorter is better.

论文要写得尽可能地短。每一个字都要派上用场。在你编辑论文时,要常常自问:“我能用更短的篇幅,来阐发同样的观点吗?”要自问:“我确实一定要说这句话吗?”定稿不要超过40页。草稿应更短。(请按我的说法去做,不要按我的做法去做。)越短越好。

 

Don’t repeat things. In other words, if you’ve said itonce, you don’t have to say it again. Most of all, it uses up extra space andreader’s patience to have to see the same point made over and over again. So,once again, repetition is really a bad idea. (Get the picture?!) “In otherwords” is a sign of trouble. Go back and say it once, right.

不要翻来覆去地说。换言之,如果你已经说了一次了,就不必再说一次。最根本地,这种“说重重话”,会浪费太多的篇幅,而且,也会耗尽读者的耐心,他们不会有耐心一遍一遍地看同一个观点的。因此,我要再次讲一下,“重复讲话”,是最不好的。(哈,你现在明白了?!)“换言之”就是问题的表现。回过去,只说一遍,这样就可以了。

 

 

Generalpoints

一般的写作要点

 

Follow the rule “first describe what you do, thenexplain it, compare it to alternatives, and compare it to others’ procedures”at the micro level as well as the macro level. For example, in describing adata transformation, just start with, say, “I adjust income by the square rootof household size”. Then tell us why adjusting is important, and then talkabout different adjustment functions. Most writers do all this in the reverseorder.

你要遵守下面写作规则:“首先描述你做了什么,解释它,将它与其他做法进行比较,将它与其他人的做法进行比较”,小处如此,大处亦如此。譬如,在描述数据转换时,首先要说:“我根据房屋数量的二次根,调整了收入”。然后,告诉大家,为什么这个调整是重要的。然后,讲讲不同的调整方法。大部分写作者,正好反其道。

 

 

Previews and recalls are a good sign of poororganization. “As we will see in Table 6” “Recall from section 2” “this result previews the extra analysis of section4” all often mean you didn’tput things in the right order.

组织不好,就是看“前述”与“后述”这两个东西。“正如我们将要在表6中看到的”、“让我们回忆一下第2节”、“这个结论,预示了第4节中的额外分析”等,总是说明你的文章次序安排不好。

 

Strive for precision. Read each sentence carefully.Does each sentence say something, and does it mean what it says?

努力精确。每个句子,都要仔细地读。“每个句子都说明了一些内容吗?它会不会还有别的含义?”

 

 

Document your work. A fellow graduate student must beable to sit down with your paper and all alone reproduce every number in itfrom instructions given in the paper, and any print or web appendices. Theusual student paper falls short here. There is a sea of verbiage, but I can’tfigure out how the central table of results was computed, how standard errorswere computed, how a simulation was conducted, etc.

记下你的工作。一个研究生同学,必定能够坐下来,拿着你的论文。然后,独自一个按着论文、印刷品或网页附录中的指导,去重新演算其中的数字。一般的学生论文,没有这一部分。文字太多了,可是,我不能知道“结果的核心表格”是如何计算的、不知道标准误是怎么计算的、不知道摸拟是怎么做的。等等。

 

Simple is better. Most students think they have todress up a paper to look impressive. The exact opposite is true: The less mathused, the better. The simpler the estimation technique, the better.

简单会更好。大部分学生认为,他们要把论文化装,让它看上去令人印象深刻。实际上,相反的做法,才更好:数学要少用。“估算”的技术,越简单,越好。

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