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经济学的无畏前行者克鲁格曼(1):一朝成名天下知  

2009-04-12 16:27:54|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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中文博主按:在前面有好几篇文章,涉及到了克鲁格曼,还有人专文(大约20多页)整理了克鲁格曼的成就。不过,这里的一篇评述,应该是最好的。当然,小标题还是我加上去的。

Economist as Crusader

经济学的无畏前行者:克鲁格曼

ArvindSubramanian interviews economist Paul Krugman


一、一朝成名天下知

Economics made Paul Krugmanfamous. Punditry has made him a celebrity, famous for being famous. But Krugmanaspires to be long remembered, and, in this respect, John Maynard Keynes is thegold standard. Keynes left his mark in three distinct ways: through the powerof ideas, through the art of public persuasion, and through the shaping ofhistoric changes. This last is denied to all but those who find themselves atthe right place at an epochal time. But on the first two scores, at least,Krugman may well become the first person outside the field of literature to winboth the Nobel and Pulitzer Prizes, the acme of achievement in academics andjournalism.

经济学让克鲁格曼天下闻名。博学让克鲁格曼如日中天。闻名天下,复又如日中天。但是,克鲁格曼期望着名垂青史,就像凯恩斯那样。像凯恩斯那样成为永恒的标尺。凯恩斯有三个卓越之处:思想动人心魄、游说令人信服、以及塑造了历史。只有那些在历史关头做出了正确选择的人们才会承认最后一条。但是,在前两个记录上,至少,克鲁格曼才会真正成为文学界之外的第一人。他得到了诺奖,也得到了普利策奖,这是学术和新闻的最高成就。

The dismal science has produced many versatile economists.Other giants of the 20th century, such as John Hicks, Ken Arrow, and PaulSamuelson, sparkled in several fields. Within international economics, though,specialization has tended to be the rule. Bertil Ohlin, Eli Hecksher, JagdishBhagwati, and Elhanan Helpman made seminalcontributions in the field of international trade. International macroeconomicshas seen many that fall somewhere between the great and the very good,including Robert Mundell, Rudi Dornbusch, Michael Mussa, Maurice Obstfeld, andKenneth Rogoff.

经济学这门忧郁的科学(关于这个说法,请参见本博客的《谬矣,马尔萨斯!》——中文博主注),创造了许多多才多艺的经济学家。20世纪的经济学巨人,像希克斯、阿罗和萨缪尔森,在好几个领域里光芒万丈。不过,在国际经济学的领域里,经济学家的专业化,是一个定则。俄林、赫克舍尔、巴克沃蒂和赫尔普曼,对国际贸易具有根本贡献。国际宏观经济学家可以看到许多人,处于“厉害角色”和“伟大人物”之间,包括:蒙代尔、多恩布什、穆萨、奥布斯特菲特德和罗葛夫。(在国际经济学的领域中,有三个man,比较厉害,除了KrugmanHelpman之外,还有一个叫Grossman——中文博主按。

But Krugman, like James Meade, is a rare economist whoseaccomplishments at the highest level span both of these subfields. He opened upthe study of trade under increasing returns and imperfect competition and laterresuscitated the study of economic geography. And his work on currency crisesand exchange rates has been highly influential. In 1991, he was awarded theJohn Bates Clark medal in recognition of his "significant contribution toeconomic thought and knowledge." The cognoscenti know that this honor,which is awarded once every two years to an economist under 40, is a littlemore difficult to win than the annually awarded Nobel Prize.

但是,克鲁格曼,就像米德一样,是一个稀有的经济学家,他跨越了这两个子领域里,他都取得了最高成就。他开创了收益递增和不完全竞争下的贸易的研究,后来,又让经济地理研究重新焕发青春。而且,他对货币危机和汇率的研究,产生了极大的影响。1991年时,他因“对经济思想和经济学术的杰出贡献”,而获得克拉克奖。内行都知道:这个荣誉,每两年颁给40岁以下的经济学家,比每年一次的诺奖还要稍微难一点。


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