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N·格里高利·曼昆的博客

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价格歧视,有时会提高效率!(推荐)  

2009-04-04 19:22:01|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Drug Reimportation

Mycolleague Jeff Miron calls attention in his blogto a Boston Globe article,indicating that the USgovernment is stepping up enforcement of the ban on drug reimportation. Theissue: Should Americans be allowed to buy prescription drugs in Canada, wherethey are often less expensive? Under current law, the answer is no. Jeff, whohas a libertarian prespective, thinks the ban is unjustifiable.

我的同事Jeff Miron,让我去看他的博客,他谈的是Boston Globe上的一篇文章。那篇文章说:美国政府正想强制实施对药口再进口的禁令。问题是:是否应该允许美国(Americans 美国人)去购买加拿大的处方药呢?(通常来说,加拿大的价格会更便宜一些。)在当前的法律下,答案就是“不应该。”而老杰,禀持的却是自由主义的观点,他认为这个禁令是不合理的。

Eugene点评:

Call attention to: 要大家注意
Call my attention to: 要我注意
我的同事Jeff Miron, 在他的博客里,(估计用键联的方式——译者)要大家注意登载在波斯顿环球日报上的一篇文章。


But the free-market perspective does not yield an easy answer here. Free-marketeconomists believe the government should enforce private contracts. Imaginethat drug companies sold inexpensive drugs to Canadawith the contract provision that they not be resold to the United States.One could then argue that the government should help the drug companies enforcethat contract. But isn't that in effect what the ban on reimportation does? Soperhaps one can justify it as a part of the governmental job of enforcingprivate contracts. (That is the essentially the argument made by legal scholar Richard Epstein.)

但是,自由市场的看法,在这儿,可不会给出一个便当的答案。自由市场经济学家相信:政府应该强制实施(Enforce: 更好的译法是执行。)私人契约(private contracts)。想象一个情况:药品公司把便宜的药卖到加拿大时,所签订的合同条款是“这些药不能回卖给美国”。这样,人们就会说了:政府应该帮助药品公司实施这样的合同。但是,这与“禁止回售”的禁令的效果是一模一样的吗?(但是,这难道不与“禁止回售”的禁令在效果上是一模一样的吗?)这样,也许,大家就会合理地认为它就是政府强制实施私人契约的工作之一部分(也许,大家就会以这也是执行私人契约的政府工作的一部分来为之辩护。)。(本质上,这是法律专家RichardEpstein的看法。)


Suppose we weren't talking about Canada(which has low drug prices largely because of price controls) but instead wewere talking about Africa. Suppose a drugcompany offered an AIDS drug to a poor African country at slightly abovemarginal cost. (This is much below the US price, which includes a markupdue to the monopoly power granted by the patent). Should American AIDS patientsbe allowed to buy the drug in Africa and bring it back to the United States?Jeff would say yes. But if policymakers followed this advice, arbitrage wouldprevent the drug company from price discriminating. A single price (orapproximately so) would have to prevail worldwide. The result: The drug companywouldn't offer the low-cost drug to the poor African country.

 

假设我们现在不讨论加拿大(它那儿的低药价,大多是因为价格控制所致),假设我们现在讨论非洲。假设有一家药品公司,以略高于边际成本的价格,向贫穷的非洲国家提供艾滋病的药品。(这个价格远低于美国的价格,因为美国的价格还包括了“加成”,这个加成来自于专利赋予的垄断权)。那么,应该让美国的艾滋患者去买非洲的药,并将它带回美国吗?老杰说,“没问题啊!”但是,如果政策制定者按照他的话去做,套利现象,就会让药品公司不再实施“差别价格”的制度了。单一价格(或大致上的“单一价格),就必定会通行全球。结果就是:药品公司,也不会向贫穷的非洲国家出售低成本的药品了。

Remember what we learned in the fall in ec 10: Price discrimination cansometimes make goods available to more consumers and increase the efficiency ofmarket allocations. Nonetheless, those consumers who end up paying more than averagecan easily see the situation as unfair, which is what is happening with theissue of drug reimportation.

请记得我们在秋天的课上学的知识:“差别价格”,有时,可以让更多的消费者得到商品,有时可以提高市场分配的效率。然而,那些最终支付了高于平均价格的消费者,也会轻易地认为这种情况是不公平的。这就是我们在这个“药品再进口”问题看到的东西。


Question to think about: Should the U.S. government set up legalinstitutions that facilitate or impede international price discrimination?

思考题:美国政府应该设立法律机构,以利于(或阻碍)国际性的差别价格吗?

Conflict-of-interest alert: Like drugs, textbooks are sold for different pricesin different countries, and publishers make great effort to avoid the naturalarbitrage. So, perhaps, I am not completely objective about this issue.

以下的提示,与我个人的利益是有冲突的(利益冲突之提示):与药品一样,在不同的国家,教科书的售价,也是不一样的。出版商花了大力气来防止自发性的套利。因此,可能我个人对这个问题并不完全持反对的态度(因此,我个人对这个问题有可能不是完全客观的。)。

 

价格歧视,有时会提高效率!(推荐) - 曼昆 - N·格里高利·曼昆的博客

 

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