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实验报告:金钱使人隔膜  

2009-03-29 16:49:06|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Does money undermine community?

 

的 Peter Singer的研究:

In a series ofexperiments, Vohs and her colleagues found ways to get people to think aboutmoney without explicitly telling them to do so. They gave some people tasksthat involved unscrambling phrases about money. With others, they left piles ofMonopoly money nearby. Another group saw a screensaver with variousdenominations of money. Other people, randomly selected, unscrambled phrasesthat were not about money, did not see Monopoly money, and saw different screensavers.In each case, those who had been led to think about money – let’s call them“the money group” – behaved differently from those who had not.

在一系列的实验中,Vohs和她的同事,想了一些办法,让人们在没有被明示的情况下,想到“金钱”。他们分配给一些人任务,让他们去解读(unscrambling)与金钱有关的短句。对其他人呢,在他们的附近留了几堆专用的钱。另有一堆人,可以在屏保上看到各种名目的钱。再随机地选出一些人来,让他们解读与钱无关的短句,也看不到专用的钱,看到的屏保上也没有钱。在每一种情况下,那些被勾引着“想钱”的人——就称他们是“钱族”吧——他们的行为方式,与别人不一样。

这里的Monopoly是一种棋子的名。中文译成强力棋。 下棋者各自发有一堆筹码币。 即Monopoly money.
Eugene Chen 评论。


  • When given a difficult task and told that help was available, people in the money group took longer to ask for help.
  • 交给他们一个艰巨的工作,并且告诉他们可以得到帮助,这时,钱族开口寻求帮助所花的时间更长一些。
  • When asked for help, people in the money group spent less time helping.
  • 在要求这些人提供帮助时,钱族提供帮助的时间比较短。
  • When told to move their chair so that they could talk with someone else, people in the money group left a greater distance between chairs.
  • 告诉他们可以移动椅子,这样,就可以与别人交谈了,这时,钱族的椅子之间的空档,比较大。
  • When asked to choose a leisure activity, people in the money group were more likely to choose an activity that could be enjoyed alone, rather than one that involved others.
  • 在让他们选择一种休闲活动时,钱族更会选择一些自娱自乐的活动,而不想让别人参与。
  • Finally, when people in the money group were invited to donate some of the money they had been paid for participation in the experiment, they gave less than those who had not been induced to think about money.
  • 最后,当要求钱族把自己的实验收入拿出来做捐献的时候,他们捐的钱,比没有想到钱的那一族,要少一些。

Trivial reminders ofmoney made a surprisingly large difference. For example, where the controlgroup would offer to spend an average of 42 minutes helping someone with atask, those primed to think about money offered only 25 minutes. Similarly,when someone pretending to be another participant in the experiment asked forhelp, the money group spent only half as much time helping her. When asked tomake a donation from their earnings, the money group gave just a little overhalf as much as the control group.

只要稍微提到“钱”这个东西,就会引起很大的差异。譬如,“控制组”说自己可以花费42分钟去帮助别人,而那些首先想到“钱”的人们,就只说花费25分钟。同样地,当有人假装是其他参与者,要求大家提供帮助时,钱族只花一半的时间来帮助别人。当要他们把自己的收入捐出来时,钱族捐的钱,只是“控制组”的一半多一点。

Why does money makes usless willing to seek or give help, or even to sit close to others? Vohs and hercolleagues suggest that as societies began to use money, the necessity ofrelying on family and friends diminished, and people were able to become moreself-sufficient. “In this way,” they conclude, “money enhanced individualismbut diminished communal motivations, an effect that is still apparent in people’sresponses today.”

为什么“金钱”这玩艺,让大家不太愿意帮助别人,也不太愿意请求别人帮助呢?甚至不太愿意坐得更近呢?Vohs和她的同事,认为:因为社会开始使用“金钱”了,对朋友和家庭的依赖性,就消失了;而且,人们能变得更加自给自足(self-sufficient)。他们的结论是:“就是以这种方式,金钱,提高了个人主义,但是,消磨了社会动机。这个效应,在实验人群的反应中,表现得还是很明显的。”

实验报告:金钱使人隔膜 - 曼昆 - N·格里高利·曼昆的博客

 

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